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绿色建筑建筑中常用的可持续技术:可再生能源

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绿色建筑建筑中常用的可持续技术:可再生能源

2020/06/18 16:00
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【摘要】:
在建筑中应用绿色技术的益处是全面而深远的,无论对于是新建筑还是现有建筑,他都具有显著的优势。绿色技术让建筑更高效和可持续性,由此降低建筑的碳足迹和对环境的影响。

绿色建筑技术已经成为建设领域最热门的趋势之一。在建筑中应用绿色技术的益处是全面而深远的,无论对于是新建筑还是现有建筑,他都具有显著的优势。绿色技术让建筑更高效和可持续性,由此降低建筑的碳足迹和对环境的影响

 

The green building technology has become one of the hottest trends in the construction field. The benefits of applying green technology in buildings are comprehensive and far-reaching. It has significant advantages in both new and existing buildings. Green technology makes buildings more efficient and sustainable, thereby reducing the carbon footprint and impact on the environment.

本周将和大家分享可再生能源的技术应用,其中主要介绍太阳能光伏技术。

This week we will share the application of renewable energy technologies, mainly introducing solar photovoltaic technology.

一、可再生资源的重要性:
1. The importance of renewable energies

将可再生能源引入和应用于建筑中是未来建筑行业发展的重要方向,可再生资源可以有效替代代传统不可再生能源的运用,直接表现出了较为明显的节能优化效果,在维持建筑行业可持续发展的同时,也缓解了整个社会发展中面临的能源短缺局面。

The application of renewable energy in construction is an important direction for the development of the future construction industry. Renewable resources can effectively replace the use of traditional non-renewable energy, directly showing a more obvious energy-saving optimization effect, which promotes the sustainable developement of construction industry and eases the energy shortage faced by the entire society.

另外,对于具体建筑工程项目而言,如果能够充分合理引入和应用可再生能源,还能够有效规避传统能源应用带来的一些环境污染问题,对于营造更为舒适合理的建筑空间具备积极作用,这也是可再生能源应用的一个重要优势表现。

In addition, for specific construction projects, if renewable energy can be fully introduced and applied reasonably, some environmental pollution problems caused by traditional energy applications can be effectively avoided, which will have a positive effect on creating a more comfortable and reasonable building space. It is also an important advantage of renewable energy applications.

二、可再生能源在建筑设计中的应用:
2. The application of renewable energies in architecture design

1. 建筑太阳能光伏系统
1. Solar photovoltaic system

2018“长屋计划”中的光伏系统

The photovoltaic system of 2018 “LONG-PLAN”

建筑光伏系统就是将太阳能发电技术应用到建筑上的一种系统。建筑光伏系统根据二者的结合程度不同分为:附加光伏系统(BAPV)以及光伏建筑一体化(BIPV)。附加光伏系统是指简单地附着在建筑上,主要功能是发电,与建筑功能不发生冲突,不破坏或者削弱原有建筑物的功能。同时,光伏建筑一体化是指对于光伏系统与建筑实行一体化的规划、设计、制造、安装和使用与建筑物结合良好的系统。

Building photovoltaic system is a system that applies solar power generation technology to buildings. Building photovoltaic systems are classified according to the degree of combination of the two: additional photovoltaic systems (BAPV) and photovoltaic building integration (BIPV). It is called additional photovoltaic system that is simply attached to the building, wih the function of power generation and does not conflict with the building function, does not damage or weaken the function of the original building. At the same time, BIPV is the system that integrates planning, designing, manufacturing, installing, and using. 

a. 建筑光伏系统的主要应用形式
a. Main application forms of building photovoltaic system

附加光伏系统(BAPV)
(1)屋顶附加系统是指光伏板直接安装在建筑的屋顶上。由于建筑的屋顶大多不会被遮挡,所以屋顶区域最适合用来安装光伏组件。不仅适用于平屋顶,也同样适用于坡屋顶。
(2)墙面附加系统是指光伏板依附于建筑的立面上。墙面因为其多样化,也适合光伏板的安装,一般墙面光伏电站应用于较为年久的老旧建筑,根据建筑风格和太阳能光伏技术在建筑中设计与应用。

Additional photovoltaic systems (BAPV)
(1) The additional roof system means that photovoltaic panels are directly installed on the roof of the building. Since most of the building's roof is not covered, the roof area is the most suitable area installing photovoltaic modules., not only for flat roofs, but also for pitched roofs.
(2) Wall attachment system refers to the attachment of photovoltaic panels to the facade of a building. The wall is also suitable for the installation of photovoltaic panels because of its diversification. Generally, wall photovoltaic power stations are used in older buildings. According to the architectural style and regulations, and solar photovoltaic technology is designed and used in buildings.

光伏建筑一体化(BIPV)
(1)光伏采光顶是指将具有良好透光性能和发电性能的太阳能光伏板应用到屋面。光电采光顶要求采用透光性优良的光伏组件,一般透光率设计在10%~50%。
(2)光伏幕墙是指将具有发电功效的光电玻璃作为建筑的玻璃幕墙,其与传统玻璃幕墙的构造方式基本相同,但是它可以将太阳能转化成电能,使得幕墙本身能够产能。光伏幕墙使用的光电玻璃可分为硅基薄膜和碲化镉(CdTe)薄膜两大类。
(3)光伏构件是指将光伏板作为建筑的一些构件使用,比如将光伏板作为建筑的遮阳构件和围护构件,或者安装在阳台的栏杆扶手上等等。将光伏板代替某些建筑构件,不仅可以节约建筑构件材料,同时还能丰富建筑外观。

Photovoltaic Building Integration (BIPV)
(1) Photovoltaic lighting roof refers to the application of solar photovoltaic panels with good light transmission performance and power generation performance to the roof. Photovoltaic lighting ceilings require photovoltaic modules with excellent light transmission, and the general light transmittance is designed to be 10% to 50%.
(2) Photovoltaic curtain wall refers to the use of photovoltaic glass with power generation effect as the glass curtain wall of the building, which is basically the same construction method as the traditional glass curtain wall, but can convert solar energy into electricity and enable to the curtain wall itself to produce capacity. The photovoltaic glass used in photovoltaic curtain walls can be divided into two major categories: silicon-based films and cadmium telluride (CdTe) films.
(3) Photovoltaic components refer to the use of photovoltaic panels as some of the building's components, such as using photovoltaic panels as building sunshade and envelope members, or installing on the balustrade of a balcony. Replacing certain building components with photovoltaic panels not only saves building component materials, but also enriches the building's appearance.

光伏建筑一体化
BIPV

b. 光伏建筑的优点
b. Advantages of photovoltaic buildings

(1)减少污染。太阳能光伏建筑一体化是把太阳能转化成电能,在这转化过程中对环境的危害微乎其微。太阳能是一种清洁型的可再生能源,并且它具有可再生性,人们完全不用担心太阳能资源枯竭问题。
(2)节约能源。光伏板把吸收的太阳能转化成电能,一方面有效减少墙体所吸收的热量,另一方面它能够有效降低室内空调的冷负荷,既节省了能源,又利于保证室内的空气品质。同时太阳能被最大限度地吸收,整个城市的温度也会有所降低,所以能够减少城市热岛效应。
(3)节约土地。光伏建筑一体化并不会占用土地。光伏板一般安装在建筑屋顶、外墙上,或者直接作为采光顶、玻璃幕墙、建筑构件使用,这样就不需要额外占用土地。
(4)节约建材。太阳能光伏建筑一体技术更多的是将太阳能光伏板代替建筑的构件进行使用,这必将大大减少建筑材料的使用,在满足建筑自身功能使用的同时,又能产生能源,可谓一举多得。
(5)即发即用。独立光伏发电系统把转换的电能储存在蓄电池里面,再供负载使用,与有无外网无关,不需要架设输电线路,非常适用于偏远山区、海岛、沙漠、边疆等无电地区。光伏建筑能够做到原地发电,原地使用,同时减少了电力输送损耗的电能;
(6)随处可建。光伏建筑不仅仅适用于偏远无电地区,城市也同样适用。同时与其他可再生能源相比,光伏发电都显示出它独特的优势,比如和风力发电相比,它没有噪声和共振问题;和地热相比,它没有冬夏平衡和地域地质选择的问题;和水力发电相比,不用评估它对地质环境造成的影响。
(7)效益回报高。

(1) Reduce pollution. Solar photovoltaic building integration is the conversion of solar energy into electricity, and the harm to the environment in this conversion process is minimal. Solar energy is a clean and renewable energy source, and it is renewable. People do not need to worry about the exhaustion of solar energy resources.
(2) Save energy. The photovoltaic panel converts the absorbed solar energy into electrical energy, which can effectively reduce the heat absorbed by the wall,. On the other hand, it can effectively reduce the cooling load of the indoor air conditioner, which not only saves energy, but also helps to ensure indoor air quality. At the same time, solar energy is absorbed to the maximum, and the temperature of the entire city will be reduced. So it can reduce the urban heat island effect.
(3) Save space. The integration of photovoltaic buildings does not occupy land. Photovoltaic panels are generally installed on the building roof, exterior wall, or directly used as lighting ceiling, glass curtain wall, and building components, so that no additional land is required.
(4) Save building materials. The integration of solar photovoltaic building technology is to use solar photovoltaic panels instead of building components, which will greatly reduce the use of building materials, and at the same time meet the use of the building's own functions, it can also generate energy.
(5) Use immediately. The independent photovoltaic power generation system stores the converted electric energy in the storage battery and then supplies it to the load. It has nothing to do with the presence or absence of an external network and does not need to set up transmission lines. It is very suitable for remote mountainous areas, islands, deserts, borders and other non-electric areas. Photovoltaic buildings can generate electricity in situ and use it in situ, while reducing power transmission losses;
(6) Build anywhere. Photovoltaic buildings are not only suitable for remote areas without electricity, but cities are also suitable. Compared with other renewable energy sources, photovoltaic power generation has shown its unique advantages. For example, compared with wind power generation, it has no noise and resonance problems; compared with geothermal, it has no winter and summer balance and regional geological selection issues; Compared with hydroelectric power, there is no need to evaluate its impact on the geological environment.
(7) High returns.


c. 光伏建筑的缺点
c. Disadvantages of photovoltaic buildings

(1)造价较高。就目前而言,建设一座光伏建筑的建造价还相对较高。并且将光伏发电系统应用到建筑上的相关技术还有待进一步的研发和改进。
(2)成本高。太阳能本身虽然是免费的,但是太阳能光伏设备以及系统安装成本相对较高。
(3)不稳定。光伏发电受天气影响比较大,具有一定的波动性。因为并不是一天二十四小时都有太阳辐射,并且由于云层、温度影响,光电转化效率也大不相同。因此太阳能光伏发电的波动性和储电是迫切需要解决的问题。

(1) High cost. For now, the cost of building a photovoltaic building is relatively high. And the technology related to the application of photovoltaic power generation systems to buildings needs further development and improvement.
(2) High cost. Although solar energy itself is free, solar photovoltaic equipment and system installation costs are relatively high.
(3) Unstable. Photovoltaic power generation is greatly affected by the weather and has certain fluctuations. Because solar radiation is available 24 hours a day, as well as the influence of clouds and temperature, the photoelectric conversion efficiency also different. Therefore, the fluctuating nature of solar photovoltaic power generation and electricity storage are urgent problems to be solved.


d. 光伏建筑的现状与发展
d. Status and development of photovoltaic buildings

2010-2018年全球累计光伏装机容量及增加速度
2010-2018 cumulative global photovoltaic installed capacity and growth rate

至2018年,全球累计光伏装机容量已达495 GW。国是一个超级建设大国,也是一个光伏电池生产大国。2007年中国大陆太阳能电池产量达到1 088 MW,占全世界太阳能电池产量的27.2%。我国已经成为太阳能电池的第一生产国。据国际能源署(IEA)预测,至2020年,中国城市中光伏建筑一体化可应用面积为17.9 亿m2,新增光伏建筑应用装机容量达到1 000 万kW。同时,中国光伏发电平准化发电成本可降至0.6~0.8 元 / kWh。


By 2018, the global cumulative installed photovoltaic capacity has reached 495 GW. China is a super-construction country and a country producing photovoltaic cells. In 2007, China's solar cell output reached 1 088 MW, accounting for 27.2% of the world's solar cell output. China has become the first producer of solar cells. According to the International Energy Agency (IEA) forecast, by 2020, the applicable area of photovoltaic building integration in Chinese cities will be 1.79 billion m2, and the installed capacity of new photovoltaic building applications will reach 10 million kW. At the same time, China ’s photovoltaic power generation standardization power generation cost can be reduced to 0.6 to 0.8 yuan / kWh.


2. 风能的设计应用
2. Application of wind energy in architectural design

巴林世贸中心
World Trade Centre Bahrain

在建筑工程项目的设计中,风能同样也是比较重要的一类可再生能源,利用恰当科学的设计手段,能够促使风能较好作用于建筑工程项目内部空间,进而体现较强节能清洁效益。类似于太阳能的建筑设计运用,在风能的设计应用中同样也涉及到了主动式和被动式两种方式。被动式的应用风能同样也是针对建筑工程项目自身进行合理设计优化,借助于建筑结构的调整、朝向的布局以及门窗的合理设计,能够促使建筑物形成较为协调有序的自然通风条件,进而也就必然可以有效营造舒适的室内环境,同时规避了机械通风装置的运用,节能效果不容忽视,尤其是在夏季,自然通风的热量排出效果是比较理想的。

In the design of construction projects, wind energy is also a relatively important type of renewable energy. The use of appropriate scientific design methods can promote wind energy to better affect the interior space of construction projects, and thus reflect strong energy saving and clean benefits. Similar to the application of solar energy in architectural design, active and passive methods are also involved in the design and application of wind energy. The passive application of wind energy is also designed and optimized for the construction project itself. With the help of adjustment of the building structure, the layout of the orientation, and the reasonable design of the doors and windows, it can promote the building to form a more coordinated and orderly natural ventilation condition, thus effectively create a comfortable indoor environment, while avoiding the use of mechanical ventilation devices, energy-saving effects can not be ignored, the natural ventilation heat discharge effect is ideal especially in summer.

3. 地热能的设计应用
3. Application of geothermal energy in architectural design

相对于普遍存在的太阳能以及风能,地热能虽然分布并不是特别广泛,但是在一些地热能源较为充分的地区,如果能够在建筑设计中予以灵活运用,同样也能够表现出理想的节能清洁效益。基于地热能在建筑设计中的具体运用来看,地源热泵的合理设置是比较关键的手段和方式,建筑工程项目借助于地源热泵能够较好促使地热能源更好服务于建筑物内部空间,在暖通系统运行方面具备理想优化作用。结合当前地源热泵在建筑工程项目中的应用进行分析,其往往涉及到了水- 水型以及土- 气型两个基本类型,需要建筑设计人员结合不同建筑工程项目予以灵活选用,力求能够最大程度上发挥地热能源的作用价值。为了较好提升地热能的建筑设计应用效果,建筑设计人员往往需要重点研究当地环境条件,尤其是需要重点研究地质条件,分析在地热资源的设计应用过程中,是否会存在较为严重的安全隐患,需要以确保建筑工程项目整体安全性和稳定性为基本前提。对于地热能源进行有效设计运用往往还需要充分考虑到传输路径,尽量缩短距离,减少过程中的热能损耗。

Compared with the widespread solar energy and wind energy, although geothermal energy is not particularly widely distributed, in some regions with sufficient geothermal energy, if be flexibly used in building design, it can also show ideal energy saving and cleaning benefits. Based on the specific application of geothermal energy in architectural design, the reasonable setting of ground source heat pumps is a more critical method. The use of ground source heat pumps in construction projects can better promote geothermal energy to better serve the interior space of buildings. It has ideal optimization effect on HVAC system operation. The analysis is based on the current application of ground source heat pumps in construction engineering projects, which often involves two basic types of water-water type and soil-air type. Architectural designers need to flexibly choose different types of construction projects to strive the role of geothermal energy to maximize . In order to improve the application effect of geothermal energy in building design, building designers often need to focus on the local environmental conditions, especially the geological conditions, and analyze whether there will be more serious hidden dangers in the design and application of geothermal resources. The basic prerequisite is to ensure the overall safety and stability of the construction project. For the effective design and use of geothermal energy, it is often necessary to fully consider the transmission path, shorten the distance as much as possible, and reduce the thermal energy loss in the process.

4. 生物能的设计应用
4. Application of Bioenergy in Architectural Design

在建筑设计中可再生能源的有效运用还表现在生物能方面,生物能的有效设计运用同样也能够较好服务于建筑工程项目,并且成为未来研究和探索的重要领域。在生物能的建筑设计应用中,除了城区垃圾处理带来的热电联产渠道外,当前建筑工程项目中比较常见的就是沼气的开发运用。沼气作为比较重要的一类资源,如果能够较好作用于建筑物应用,必然也就可以明显取代传统能源的浪费。基于此,建筑设计中需要合理布置沼气生成装置,尤其是在一些农村区域,更是需要大力开发应用粪便以及植物秸秆进行转化的沼气池,尽量提升这些沼气池的产量,合理布设沼气供应渠道和线路,促使沼气可以更好服务于建筑工程项目,满足人们对于燃料或者是供热方面的需求。

The effective use of renewable energy in building design is also manifested in the aspect of bioenergy. The effective design and use of bioenergy can also serve construction projects well and become an important area for future research and exploration. In the design and application of biomass energy, in addition to the combined heat and power channels brought by urban waste treatment, the most common in current construction projects is the development and use of biogas. As a more important type of resources, biogas can obviously replace the waste of traditional energy if it can be better applied to buildings. Based on this, the biogas generation device needs to be reasonably arranged in the architectural design, especially in some rural areas, and it is necessary to vigorously develop biogas digesters that use manure and plant straw for conversion, which means to increase the output of these biogas digesters, rationally arranging the biogas supply channels and Lines, so that biogas can better serve construction projects and meet people's needs for fuel or heating.

 

参考文献:

1. 张学刚,《可再生能源在建筑设计中的应用研究》

2. 谢龙,《光伏发电幕墙在当代建筑立面上的应用研究》

3. 李 妞,《太阳能光伏技术在建筑中的应用与设计》